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@40mins, Correna Haythorpe, AEU President, Politicians always say class size does not matter.
Victorian President Merridith Peace repeated this in the last AEU Council meeting of 2021, about the negotiation with Victorian Govt.

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@5mins, down the rabbit hole, lost some sleep over VL.
@6mins, Hattie's methods are bad.
8mins, Hattie combines studies measuring totally different things.
@8.40mins, A different message is conveyed compared to the original studies.
@18mins, Hattie has an interest in not responding to critique.
@26mins, Huge problems combining different measures of achievement e.g. Creativity and PISA.
@27.30mins, Collective Teacher Efficacy
Copy here -

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8min - Cartwright - Meta-analysis are based on principles that are limiting & mistaken.
13 min - Cartwright - Causal claims are not probabilistic.
25 min - the problem of fraud.
29 min - Cartwright - much of Meta-analysis depends on judgement, what is comparable or not. Different people make different judgements and can come up with a totally different conclusion.
32 min - Nosek shows 29 different teams calculate 29 different ES with the same data.
35 min - Higgins - there are problems with indicators of quality in EEF toolkit.
42 min - Higgins agrees with Dylan Wiliam months of progress is questionable.
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Centre for Independent Studies (2022). Debunking Maths Myths. Sarah Powell, Ollie Lovell, Jen Buckingham &Glenn Fahey. Retrieved October 16 2022 from -
@5mins, JB We need the maths wars!
@7.50mins, JB discovery is proven to be false and outdated.
@8.30mins, JB making the evidence impossible to ignore, Woo's presentation supports this claim.
@11.30mins, SP IBL a "faddish", strongest research evidence for more than 50 years!

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Coe, R (2022). School Environment and Leadership: A review of the evidence. Webinar.
@4min, Summary correlational, jingle jangle.
@6min, Papay & Kraft (2016) teachers 0.1 SD

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Davis, Andrew John (2022). I'm once again finding the uncritical support of Rosenshine by people who really should know better quite irritating. CR Willingham.

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Dintersmith, Ted (2018). What Schools Could Be: Insights and Inspirations from Teachers Across America. Family Action Network.
19 min - example of MIT Engineering Students not being able to light a bulb
23 min - revamp Physics Course
32 min - if test scores are important, legislators should reveal their test scores.
Retrieved 30th December 2021 from -

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Education 4 Learning and Education Endowment Foundation (2022). The latest global education evidence and how Australian school leaders put evidence into action. Webinar. 
@8.40mins, The EEF has changed its method from meta-analyses to individual studies.
@20mins, Feedback drops form 8month to 6 months progress.
@48.40mins, Luke the months of progress can convince the principal and board that it works, the guidance report save you digging into the details of the studies.
@52mins, Robyn Arri, Used Hattie & Timperley.
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@49.13mins, Class Size: "The one-two punch is: Understand where kids are deficient--so you need a bit of data. And then: Small groups, high dosage on those things that they need support on.
Because, I have seen many, many, many times, over and over, teachers be ineffective in a group of 20 or 25; students be unruly in a group of 20 or 25. But, heck, even I can be a good teacher when there's only three kids in front of me."

Fullan, M (2019). Bastow Institute. Interview by Bruce Armstrong.
13mins, Feedback.
15mins, 3 area for capital - human, social, data-decisional, 
17mins, best way to kill an idea is mandate it.
22mins, Feedback - non punitive.
28mins, Coherence.
35mins, Teachers are not part of the Victorian implementation.
44.40mins, We need Wellbeing + Achievement.
50mins, Education should be healthy endeavour.
55mins, Cynical
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ISBN-13: 9780807755242

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"Grattan Institute analysis of 2022 NAPLAN data shows the learning gap more than doubles in reading and numeracy between Year 3 and Year 9."

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Lecture for Centre for Evaluation & Monitoring, The Big Evidence Debate. 
15 min - Expect the corruption in the use of Effect Sizes
19 min - problems with standard deviation calculations
32 min - Problems with Educational Researchers.
34 min - Hedges works with WWC
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0:54:50 - teaching equations starting with an inquiry type approach.
1:27:00 - Group work.
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41mins, AERO - no educational researchers in board of governors.

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Monash University (2021). Global Critical Conversations: Is there a science of reading? Panel Discussion. 25th May 2021. Retrieved from -
19min- Not a settled Science
21min- The Research is contested & so it is not possible to put a set of simple procedures for all teachers to use.
24min- Inquiry in Ontario about how reading is taught. 
26min- Phonics stops the conversation about reading.
41min- We should not focus on phonics.
46min- Issues with Indigenous students.
59min- Flaws with NAPLAN and how it assesses Literacy.
64min- Professional Autonomy of Teachers is being Reduced.
70min- Challenge to Jennifer Buckingham's simple model of reading. Buckingham's model -"not really helpful".
76min- Pamela Snow Q's for Primary School Teachers.

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Commentary - The Year’s Most Important Study Adds to Uncertainty in Science, John Mandrola -

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Weston, David (2014). ResearchEd.
2min - contradictory results of studies are lost by averaging
4min 30sec - Reports of studies are too simplified and detail lost
5min - What does effect size mean?
6min 15 sec - Hattie's use of effect size
7min - Issues with effect size
8min 40sec - problems with spread of scores (standard deviation)
9min 30sec - need to check details of Hattie's studies
10min 30sec - problem with Hattie's hinge point d=0.40 (see A Year's Progress)
16min 50secs - Prof Dylan Wiliam's seminal work - 'Inside the Black Box', is an example of research that has been oversimplified by Educationalists - e.g., 'writing objectives on the board' but other more important findings have been lost.
18min - Context is king

Weston, David (2015). Reclaiming the profession. ResearchEd.

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Wiliam, Dylan (2016b). Leadership for teacher learning. Moorabbin, Victoria. Hawker Brownlow Education.

Wiliam, Dylan (2017). Getting educational research right. Blog. 
Retrieved 10 July 2020 from -

Wiliam, Dylan (2017b). Embedding Formative Assessment SSAT/EEF celebration event keynote. 
19min - teaching is complex
30min - collaboration research shows high collaboration.
Retrieved 10 July 2021 from -

Wiliam, Dylan (2017c). Q&A at Embedding Formative Assessment SSAT/EEF Celebration Event.
5min -after 6 weeks lose credibility about classroom teaching
21min - most important is initial knowledge
41min - PISA - most important is socio-economic status
Retrieved 10 July 2021 from -

Wiliam, Dylan  (2019). Some reflections on the role of evidence in improving education, Educational Research and Evaluation, DOI: 10.1080/13803611.2019.1617993

Wiliam, Dylan (2019b). Podcast Interview - Pedagogy Non-Grata. Retrieved 10 July 2020 from -
@3min - CTE high achievement produces higher efficacy.
@4min - critique of Meta-analyses.
@11.40min - Hattie work Zero educational value.

Wiliam, Dylan (2019c). Why meta-analysis is really hard to do well in education. Lecture for Centre for Evaluation & Monitoring, The Big Evidence Debate. 
7 min - The problem with definitions
9 min - Self Report Grades from Hattie
11 min - Hattie's 0.40
21 min - Class Size
24 min - Effect size is different for ages of students
34 min - Class Size
Retrieved 11th July 2021 from -

Wiliam, Dylan (2020). Podcast Interview - Greg Ashman (51 minute onward). 
Retrieved 10 July 2020 from -

Wiliam, Dylan (2020b). Creating the schools our children need.  ReseachEd. 
6min 30 - Those who claim class does not work are talking nonsense.
19min - Students with background knowledge of soccer improved reading ability.
33min - the most important principle - what students bring ot the class.
Retrieved 17th August 2021 from -

Wiliam, Dylan (2020c). What formative assessment is and isn't. Presentation to Australian Teachers. Formative assessment is the most important factor & Learning Intentions questioned. Retrieved 23rd August 2021 from -

Wiliam, Dylan (2021). Embedding Formative Assessment. 5 Webinar Presentations to Victorian Education Department Teachers Goulburn Region. April-June 2021. Slides here
Webinar 1 @ 60min 30sec – "we can discuss why those numbers in John Hattie’s Visible learning are just nonsense" here.

Wilkinson, Jane (2021). Global Critical Conversations: Re-imagining educational leadership for the post-COVID era. Monash University Webinar. April 27, 2021. 
0:35 - Leadership, Inequity
1:06 - Poverty
1:22 - Equity
1:29 - NAPLAN
1:30 - Wurundjeri Elders - "Learning to live well, in a World worth living in."
Retrieved April 28 2021 from -

Williams, Doug (?) Mathematics Task Centre, Working Mathematically. Retrieved May 2021 from -

Willingham, D. (2012). When Can You Trust the Experts: How to Tell Good Science from Bad in Education. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA.

Willingham, D. (2022). Education Research Is Not Science. CR Davis Andrew John.
@0.40mins, Education is not a Science.
@5.30mins, We should not expect there would be one best wat way to teach reading that will be ideal for every child and every teacher... learning is more complicated than that.
@ 5.40mins, Science Is not going to tell a teacher exactly what to do in the classroom.
@6.25mins, Boundary conditions, most kids benefit a lot from explicit instruction in letter sound correspondences.
Compare with Veritasium -

Wolf, Rebecca., Morrison, Jennifer., Inns, Amanda., Slavin, Robert & Risman, Kelsey (2020). Average Effect Sizes in Developer-Commissioned and Independent Evaluations, Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness, 13:2, 428-447, DOI: 10.1080/19345747.2020.1726537

Wolf, B., & Harbatkin, E., (2022). Making Sense of Effect Sizes: Systematic Differences in Intervention Effect Sizes by Outcome Measure Type. Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness. Aug 2022.

Woo, Eddie (2019). Teacher Masterclass. Global Education & Skills Forum.
3-A Story
4-Is Yours
@6min, plays game of boxes
@18min, Uses the card game to introduce Y7s to algebra

Woo, Eddie (2022). ABC 730 report.
@2min, low bar high ceiling
@3.30min, PBL
Retrieved October 17th 2022 from -

World Socialist Website (2021). Australian Education Union announces phony “week of action” over Victorian teachers’ workplace agreement.

Wrigley, Terry (2015). Bullying by numbers. Primary First (NAPE journal). Retrieved 10 July 2020 from -

Wrigley, Terry & McCusker, Sean (2019) Evidence-based teaching: a simple view of “science”, Educational Research and Evaluation, 25:1-2, 110-126, DOI: 10.1080/13803611.2019.1617992. Retrieved 10 July 2020 from -

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Wyn, J., (2014). 'NAPLAN testing does more harm than good.' The Conversation, 20th May 2014. Retrieved March 2021 from -

Yelle F., Éthier, M.-A. and Lefrançois, D. (2016). What is visible in problematization learning: a critical reading of the work of John Hattie. ISSUES, 12  (3), 35-38. Retrieved 10 July 2020 from -

Zhao, Yong (2016). HALT Summit.
@49mins, Direct Instruction may have side effects.
Retrieved Jan 2023 from -

Zhao, Yong (2019). Interview with Ollie Lovell (35min 30sec).
Retrieved 10 July 2020 from -

Zhou, YaRun (2019). Collective Teacher Efficacy: An Introduction to Its Theoretical Constructs, Impact, and Formation International Dialogues on Education, 2019, Volume 6, Number 2, pp. 69-82. Retrieved February 14th 2021 from - 

Zyngier, David (2014). Class size and academic results, with a focus on children from culturally, linguistically and economically disenfranchised communities. Analysis and Policy Observatory. DOI:10.4225/50/5582118F8790B. Retrieved June 2018 from -

Zyngier, David (2014b). Class size does matter at least for disadvantaged children.The Conversation. Retrieved June 2018 from -

Zyngier, David (2016). The Importance of Class Size. Worlds of Education. Retrieved June 2018 from -

Hattie References:

Corwin, Hattie's commercial arm of Visible learning- website-

Corwin & Hattie - list of Meta-Analyses-

Hattie on wikipeadia-

Hattie, J. & Hansford, B. (1984). Meta-analysis: A reflection on problems, Australian Journal of Psychology, 36:2, 239-254, DOI: 10.1080/00049538408255094

Hattie, J. & Clinton, J. (2008). Chapter 11 Identifying accomplished teachers: A validation study, Stake, R.E., Kushner, S., Ingvarson, L. and Hattie, J. (Ed.) Assessing Teachers for Professional Certification: The First Decade of the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (Advances in Program Evaluation, Vol. 11), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, Bingley, pp. 313-344.

Hattie, J. (2010). On Being a 'Critic and Conscience of Society': The Role of the Education Academic in Public Debates. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, Volume 45 Issue 1, 85-96. Retrieved June 2018 from -;dn=620423025598306;res=IELHSS

Hattie (2012). VISIBLE LEARNING FOR TEACHERS MAXIMIZING IMPACT ON LEARNING. Routledge, London and New York. ISBN: 978–0–415–69014–0 (hbk)

Hattie & Topphol (2012). Dialogue with Topphol & his statistic students. Retrieved from archive -

Hattie & Bowles (2013). A winning formula: how to pick the best teachers. The Conversation. 
Comment- James Jenkin - "Intriguing topic - but the article is like an ad!"

Hattie Interview (2015). Teacher Magazine. Retrieved June 2018 from -

Hattie, J. (2015). Corrections in VL2. Originally published -
Retrieved June 2018 from -

Hattie, J., Donoghue, G. (2016). Learning strategies: a synthesis and conceptual model. npj Science Learn 1, 16013.

Hattie, J. (2017). Educators are not uncritical believers of a cult figure, School Leadership & Management, 37:4, 427-430. Retrieved June 2018 from -

Hattie (2018). Interview with Ollie Lovell. Gene Glass @ 8min. What works Best @12min."misleading" @ 1hr 21min. Retrieved June 2019 from -

Hattie, J. & Donohoo, J. (2018b). The Power of Collective Efficacy. Educational Leadership. March 2018, Volume 75, Number 6. Retrieved July 2020 from -

Hattie Interview Pedagogy Non Grata (2019). What Works to What Works Best @ 2min. Fired all psychologist's 30min. Trust only your experience is dangerous @ 40min. Depth Learning to Deep learning @42min. I regularly teach 1000 students @ 52minutes. Retrieved June 4th 2021 from -

Hattie, J. (2019). Defends again Romer's critique. Retrieved July 2020 from -

Hattie & Hamilton (2020). Real Gold vs, Fool's Gold. Corwin Press, Inc. Retrieved Feb 2020 from -
There are some major contradictions in this paper, e.g., 
'what may be “small” may be life-saving (e.g., the effect of taking aspirin to reduce heart attacks is d < 0.01, but the side effects are low and it could be the difference between life and death). What may be small may be cheap and worth adding, but what may be “high” may be too expensive and we may need to look for alternatives. Smaller effects may have more impact on what may be very hard to change (whole systems) than what may be easier to change.'

'Note that there are two methods for calculating effect size (pre-post and intervention comparison) and they can lead to different interpretations.' (p. 4)
Hattie & Hamilton (2020b). As Good as Gold. Corwin Press, Inc. Retrieved Feb 2020 from -

Wisniewski, B., Zierer, K., Hattie, J. (2020). The Power of Feedback Revisited: A Meta-Analysis of Educational Feedback Research. Front Psychol. 2020 Jan 22;10:3087. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03087. PMID: 32038429; PMCID: PMC6987456. Retrieved March 2021 from -

Hattie on School Closures and COVID-19- Kansas MTSS, Retrieved 10 July 2020 from -
"Distance learning shows a very low effect size, but that means that it does not matter whether you are distant or not and should not be interpreted as “distance is disastrous.” What is more important is the methods of teaching..."
Hattie, J., & Donoghue, G. (2021). A Meta-Analysis of Ten Learning Techniques. Frontiers in Education.

Killian, Shaun (2015). An Objective Critique of Hattie’s VISIBLE LEARNING RESEARCH. Blog, retrieved April 22 2021 from -

Douglas, Fisher, and Frey Nancy. (2018). "The Long View of Visible Learning’s Impact." Education Sciences 8 (4):174. doi: 10.3390/educsci8040174.

Morgan, Joseph (2022). Defense of Hattie. 

Hattie, John, and Kyle Hattie. (2022). 10 Steps to Develop Great Learners : Visible Learning for Parents, Taylor & Francis Group.


Salkind, N.  (2006). Encyclopaedia of Measurement and Statistics, SAGE.

Smith, G. (2014). Standard Deviations- Flawed assumptions, Tortured data and other ways to lie with statistics, Duckworth Overlook, London.

Detailed On-line Reviews:

Becker, Dr Jonathan. A critique of Marzano's research, but very relevant to Hattie's research.

Brown, Neil Excellent summary of issues with Visible Learning.

Cain, Tim. A review of Hattie's Teacher Subject Matter.

Class Size Matters - Join the group -here.

Class Size Comedian's analysis -

Cummings, Greg - critiques Hattie's learning Intentions -

DeWitt, Peter. Hattie is not wrong. 

Frederiksen, Mette. General comments about Visible Learning.

Haesler, Dan. details a number of issues, in particular, Class Size.

Literacy -

Marzano, Teachers Are Tired of Robert Marzano

Lupton, Dr Mandy. a critique of Hattie's misrepresentation of Inquiry-based and problem-based teaching.

Moore, Darcy. posts on the 2 peer review critiques of Hattie.

Ollie Orange. Details of mistakes in Visible Learning.

Richard Olsen. What can Visible Learning effect sizes tell us about inquiry-based learning? Nothing.

Rose, Nick An excellent blog on analysing evidence in Educational research.

Talmage, Emily. Who is Dr. Marzano.

Tyson, Charlie. Failure to Replicate.

Van Dijk, Rene. A good overview of critiques.

Smythe, Kelvin. Has written extensively on Hattie.

Wiliam, Prof Dylan. Adds many relevant comments on a variety of online forums.


Bethune, Adrian (2021). the EEF on cognitive load and the contradiction. 

Teacher Unions:

Alberta Teacher's Association - Jonathan Teghtmeyer.

New Zealand Post Primary Teacher's Association reviews of Hattie.

Other Blogs:

Great summary of problems with Effect Size in education by Nick Rose.

Andrea Jones-Rooy (2019). “What does the data say?” Data doesn’t say anything. Humans say things.

News Paper Articles:


Dr. Ben Goldacre, Bad Science web site.

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