Worked Examples

Hattie only used ONE meta-analysis for this influence where d=0.57 (Hattie's Rank = 30)

Crissman, J., (2006) The Design and Utilization of Effective Worked Examples, A Dissertation, University of Nebraska.

An effect size of d=0.57 is high in Hattie's frame of reference - more than a year's progress!

This study used a more robust design that enabled effect size to be calculated using a control and experimental group - method 1 (see effect size). So it was actually measuring a change in student achievement - unlike Self-Report Grades and Piagetian Programs.

Also, the subjects were mostly college students. Using the benchmarks calculated for different age groups (see a year's progress ?) this could be interpreted as a much higher rank than Hattie's.

This is the technique used by most math's textbooks and the most popular YouTube math's channels.

This study is worthwhile reading as it goes into a range of different ways in which teachers can use worked examples.


The Victorian Education Dept released its 10 High Impact Teaching Strategies (HITs) in 2017 to around 50,000 teachers. Worked Examples, is one of the HITs.

However, Corwin who now control Hattie's Visible Learning have updated (early 2018) Worked Examples by adding:

Wittwer & Renkl (2010) How Effective are Instructional Explanations in Example-Based Learning? A Meta-Analytic Review. They calculated an effect size of d=0.16.

They now publish the average effect size as d=0.37.

This illustrates the averaging problem discussed in detail in Effect Size.

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